Rosacea is an autoinflammatory condition of the skin, which predominantly affects the mid facial area, that is caused by an overactive innate immunity, the first line of defense in our skin, as well as vasomotor instability which results in redness and easy flushing of the skin. The symptoms of rosacea may be insidious (at first, subtle) and progress slowly over time. There are many triggers for rosacea in our everyday life, including extremes in temperature (too hot or too cold), hot coffee, hot soups, spicy food, hot showers and baths, sauna, sun exposure, alcohol use, hormonal changes and emotional stress.
There are different subtypes of rosacea:
Erythrotelangiectatic rosacea manifests as redness and sensitivity of the skin, which may be associated with a burning sensation or swelling of the mid facial area predominantly.
Papulopustular rosacea may accompany erythrotelangiectatic rosacea when red bumps and pustules appear, in addition to redness and irritation of the face.
Rhinophyma occurs when rosacea is left untreated for years and the chronic inflammation of the skin leads to scarring and overgrowth of the skin, resulting in the appearance of a bulbous nose.
Ocular rosacea may occur with or without underlying rosacea involving the skin. The symptoms may be subtle and may include easy tearing of the eyes, a sandy gritty feeling in the eyes or crusting of the corners of the eyes first thing in the morning.
The most optimal treatment regimen for rosacea varies depending on the subtype of rosacea, and usually consists of a combinational approach using anti-inflammatory agents and topical vasoconstrictors. For treatment to remove persistent facial redness due to excessive broken capillaries/blood vessels (telangiectasias), Intense Pulse Light (IPL) and a vascular laser maybe helpful.